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Frontispiece.

APOLLO BELVEDERE (Rome.)

// ><?'

THE AGE OF FABLE

OR

BEAUTIES OF MYTHOLOGY

nl

N *5

BY

THOMAS BULFINCH

A NEW, REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION

EDITED BY

REV. J. LOUGHRAN SCOTT, D.D.

O, ye delicious fables ! where the wave

And woods were peopled, and the air, with things So lovely 1 why, ah! why has science grave Scattered afar your sweet imaginings ?’*

Barry Cornwall.

WITH A CLASSICAL INDEX AND DICTIONARY AND NEARLY TWO HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS

PHILADELPHIA:

DAVID McKAY, PUBLISHER,

604 S SOUTH WASHINGTON SQUARE

Copyright, 1898, by DAVID McKay,

HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW

THE POET ALIKE OF THE MANY AND OF THE FEW, THIS ATTEMPT TO POPULARIZE

MYTHOLOGY,

AND EXTEND THE ENJOYMENT OF ELEGANT LITERATURE, IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED.

Bc/na De'a, Clym'e-ne, Ni'ke, Psy'che, Graces three, Myths, indeed,

Compared with thee.

Aurora (Reni)

AUTHOR’S PREFACE.

If no other knowledge deserves to be called useful but that which helps to enlarge our possessions or to raise our station in society, then Mythology has no claim to the appellation. But if that which tends to make us happier and better can be called useful, then we claim that epithet for our subject; for Mythol¬ ogy is the handmaid of literature, and literature is one of the best allies of virtue and promoters of happiness.

Without a knowledge of mythology much of the elegant litera¬ ture of our own language cannot be understood and appreciated. When Byron calls Rome the Niobe of nations, or says, of Venice, she looks a sea-Cybele fresh from ocean, he calls up to the mind of one familiar with our subject illustrations more vivid and striking than the pencil could furnish, but which are lost to the reader ignorant of mythology. Milton abounds in similar allu¬ sions. The short poem Comus contains more than thirty such, and the ode On the Morning of the Nativity half as many. Through Paradise Lost they are scattered profusely. This is one reason why we often hear persons by no means illiterate say that they cannot enjoy Milton. But were these persons to add to

VI

A ZJTHOR’S PREFACE.

their more solid acquirements the easy learning of this little volume, much of the poetry of Milton which has appeared to them harsh and crabbed would be found musical as is Apollo’s lute. Our citations, taken from more than twenty-five poets, from Spenser to Longfellow, will show how general has been the practice of borrowing illustrations from mythology.

The prose writers also avail themselves of the same source of elegant and suggestive illustration.

But how is mythology to be taught to one who does not learn it through the medium of the languages of Greece and Rome ? To devote study to a species of learning which relates wholly to false marvels and obsolete faiths is not to be expected of the general reader in a practical age like this. The time even of the young is claimed by so many sciences of facts and things that little can be spared for set treatises on a science of mere fancy.

But may not the requisite knowledge of the subject be acquired by reading the ancient poets in translations? We reply, the field is too extensive for a preparatory course, and these very transla¬ tions require some previous knowledge of the subject to make them intelligible.

Our book is an attempt to solve this problem by telling the stories of mythology in such a manner as to make them a source of amusement. We have endeavored to tell them correctly ac¬ cording to the ancient authorities, so that when the reader finds them referred to he may not be at a loss to recognize the refer¬ ence. Thus we hope to teach mythology not as a study, but as a relaxation from study ; to give our work the charm of a story¬ book, yet by means of it to impart a knowledge of an important branch of education.

Most of the classical legends in this book are derived from Ovid and Virgil. They are not literally translated, for, in the author’s opinion, poetry translated into literal prose is very un¬ attractive reading. Neither are they in verse, as well for other

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

vii

reasons as from a conviction that to translate faithfully under all the embarrassments of rhyme and measure is impossible. The attempt has been made to tell the stories in prose, preserving so much of the poetry as resides in the thoughts and is separable from the language itself, and omitting those amplifications which are not suited to the altered form.

The poetical citations so freely introduced are expected to answer several valuable purposes. They will tend to fix in mem¬ ory the leading fact of each story, they will help to the attainment of a correct pronunciation of the proper names, and they will enrich the memory with many gems of poetry, some of them such as are most frequently quoted or alluded to in reading and conversation.

Having chosen mythology as connected with literature for our province, we have endeavored to omit nothing which the reader of elegant literature is likely to find occasion for. Such stories and parts of stories as are offensive to pure taste and good morals are not given. But such stories are not often referred to, and if they occasionally should be, the English reader need feel no mortification in confessing his ignorance of them.

Our book is not for the learned, nor for the theologian, nor for the philosopher, but for the reader of English literature, of either sex, who wishes to comprehend the allusions so frequently made by public speakers, lecturers, essayists, and poets, and those which occur in polite conversation.

We trust our young readers will find it a source of entertain¬ ment ; those more advanced, a useful companion in their reading ; those who travel, and visit museums and galleries of art, an interpreter of paintings and sculptures ; those who mingle in cultivated society, a key to allusions which are occasionally made ; and, last of all, those in advanced life, pleasure in retracing a path of literature which leads them back to the days of their childhood, and revives at every step the associations of the morn¬ ing of life.

Vlll

A UTHOB'S r REPACK.

'['he permanency of those associations is beautifully expressed in the well-known lines of Coleridge :

The intelligible forms of ancient poets,

The fair humanities of old religion,

The Power, the Beauty, and the Majesty That had their haunts in dale or piny mountain,

Or forest, by slow stream, or pebbly spring,

Or chasms and watery depths ; all these have vanished They live no longer in the faith of reason ;

But still the heart doth need a language ; still Doth the old instinct bring back the old names,

Spirits or gods that used to share this earth With man as with their friend ; and at this day ’Tis Jupiter who brings whate’ er is great And Venus who brings every thing that’s fair.”

EDITOR’S PREFACE.

j Mythology is the dust of former beliefs. It is man’s first effort to know his God.1 The story of that effort this book seeks to relate. There has always been a fascination about the “Age of Fable unequalled by any similar work. It was first given to the public some forty years ago, but time has failed to lessen the appreciation of its merit. Mythology itself has undergone marked changes, especially on its philosophic and comparative sides ; still the essential story remains unsurpassed. The simplicity of style and purpose has contributed largely to this result. By connecting mythology with literature, the age of fable became the one of fact. Other mythologists were content to introduce the gods to each other ; Mr. Bulfinch sought to make them acquainted with men. In this he succeeded, and an intimacy was formed which had not hitherto existed. He also abandoned the conventional manual idea, and treated mythology as a story. The difference between a manual and consecutive history is the difference between a series of stagnant pools and a running stream. In the latter instance one is carried on by the force of the current. The marked changes, however, to which we have referred demand a newer and more complete edition. The Pantheons of Greece and Rome have received no important accessions, but the eastern sky is resplendent with new stars. There has been a resurrection throughout Egypt and Babylon which has entirely transformed the mythologies of those countries. This we have sought to recognize by introducing an entirely new Section on Babylon, Assyria and Phoenicia. We

1 Mythologies are the unaided attempts of man to find out God. They are the efforts of the reason struggling to know the Infinite. D. O. Hrinton, The Myths of the New World , p. 15.

(«)

X

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

have also rewritten the Chapters on Persia, India, Scandinavia and the Druids. These countries, in some instances, were the sources of our own civilization, and ought to be of interest to every student.

The classical feature upon which Mr. Bulfinch laid so much stress has received especial attention. The most liberal extracts from the old classics are to be found in almost every chapter. Such names as Virgil, Homer, Euripides, Sophocles and Ovid will become familiar to every student.

By these references the reader will obtain at least a suggestive knowledge of the thoughts and themes of those master men. Their worth is much, if they do nothing more than serve as guide-boards to the more spacious fields of ancient literature

The modern poets have also been generous in their contribu¬ tions. Mr. Bulfinch, in his first edition, made “citations from twenty-five poets, ranging from Spenser to Longfellow.” But the Muses have not been altogether voiceless for the last half- century. Our readers, on their journey through, will meet writers like Edwin Arnold, Charles A. Swinburne and William Morris, not one of whom would have been recognized as a poet forty years ago. Apart from this is the other equally important fact, that some of the finest legendary poems of the older writers, such as Tennyson’s “Tithonus,” Longfellow’s “Tales of a Wayside Inn,” and Lowell’s Prometheus,” are all of more recent date. Poetry is the natural language of all mythology. The Zend-Avesta, Rig-Veda, and the Eddas, are but the epics of the gods. They were to other nations what the Odyssey and Hineid were to Greece and Rome. From these various sheaves we have selected a few specimen-straws enough, perhaps, to suggest the richness of the harvest. Our illustrations have been selected with great care, and we hope with equal judgment. They are mainly reproductions from the original statues and paintings, thus giving a picture of the idea as it actually existed in the ancient mind. The purpose of their insertion is not only to

EDITORS PREFACE.

xi

beautify the pages, but also to interpret their thought. Apart from this, they form collectively a complete handbook of mytho¬ logical art.

One of the chief difficulties in the study of mythology is the uncertainty attached to the pronunciation of the proper names. True, there are rules of pronunciation, often more abstruse than the words themselves. The dictionary may or may not be acces¬ sible, but too frequent a reference tends to break off continuity of interest, thus rendering study an irksome task. The result is, mythology under these conditions is liable to be laid aside as something devoid of charm or interest. This obstacle we have sought to remove by giving each name, as it appears at the head of the chapter, its proper pronunciation ; also the first time it appears in the body of the text. For this we predict the grati¬ tude of every student of mythology. Too much importance cannot be attached to this feature of our edition.

To know the name is often to know the thing, especially in mythology, where names constitute being. We introduce every divinity by his proper name, and so distinctly that the student understands it from the first. One is not compelled to search the vocabularies, and return perhaps without the knowledge ; his introduction is sufficient. In doing this we have attempted to recognize the nationality of every god. Thus Jupiter is from Rome and Zeus from Olympus. With this modern Hellenistic idea, by which Rome becomes a suburb to Athens, we confess to no sympathy. There is an affinity between the name and the god which amounts to identity of being. Thus the name of Jupiter is essential to his existence ; as Zeus he ceases to be. A rose by another name may remain unchanged, but a god cannot. * Our solar system, we suppose, would suffer no change, although Jupiter were known among the planets as Zeus, Venus as Aphro¬ dite, and Mercury as Hermes. Behind those names stand real worlds ; not so in mythology. There the name is but the visible shadow of an invisible idea.

EDITOR’S PREFACE.

xii

There is no law more positive than that of custom. Name and character become inseparable. Thus Vulcan, as Hephaestus, is no longer the “crippled artizan god,” the good-natured, genial fellow who toils away without complaint, but a social gentleman. The name of Vulcan is black with the dust of the forge ; one hears the ring of the anvil in its very accent. Not so with Hephaestus. There is no soot on his face, no halt in his walk ; his associates are Mercury, Apollo and Jupiter. We have thus sought not only to retain the names, but also the ideal per¬ sonalities which they represent. The index has been enlarged to the proportions of a dictionary. Whenever an important divinity has received but passing notice in the text, we have supplemented the fact by a more extended account in the lexicon. In so doing we have quoted from Smith’s “Classical Dictionary” to such an extent that the lexicon may be regarded as a compendium of that valuable work. Three characteristics would seem to be de¬ sirable in a complete mythology simple, classic and compre¬ hensive. So far as the first is concerned, the verdict of forty years is not liable to be reversed. As for the remaining two, we can only trust that time may accord us that degree of recognition we have striven to merit. Whatever Mr. Bulfmch wrote remains largely intact. The changes introduced are incident to time and circumstance.

Our purpose has been to prompt rather than interrupt these beautiful stories as they were first told by the author, forty years ago. J. Loughran Scott.

The Macdowell Church,

Philadelphia, May, 1898.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

TAGH

Mythology Literature Structure of the Universe Olympus Jupiter/

( Zeus) Saturn Cronus Rhea Chaos Titans The Elder Godsy/Oceanus, Hyperion, Iapetus, Ophion, Themis, Mnemosyne, Eurynom Division of Universe Neptune^Plutd— Juno— Vulcan MarS^- Phoebus Apollo'' Dianh-' Cupids— Minerva Mercury^Ce- res Proserpine^ Bacchus The Muses The Graces The Fates

The Furies Nemesis Pan The Satyrs Momus Plutus Satur¬ nalia The Roman Gods The Olympian God 3— -Demigods, . . I

CHAPTER II.

Origin of the World The Golden Age Prometheus Epimetheus Theft of Fire Pandora Silver, Brazen, and Iron Ages The Milky Way The Deluge Deucalion Pyrrha Origin of Man, . . 19

CHAPTER III.

Python Delphi Apollo and Daphne Pyramus and Thisbe Origin of

the Mulberry Tree Cephalus and Procris, . 29

CHAPTER IV.

Juno lo Argus The Syrinx Callisto Constellation of Great and Lit¬ tle Bear Diana and Actaeon Actaeon turned into a Stag Ilis Death Latona Rustics transformed into Frogs, . . . .40

CHAPTER V. .

Phaeton Palace of the Sun Phoebus Chariot of the Sun Dawn Day-star The Seasons The Libyan Desert The World on Fire Slain by Jove His Tomb The Heliades Cycnus, . . 51)

CHAPTER VI.

Silenus Midas Pan’s Challenge Judgment of Midas Ilis Ears The (iordian Knot Baucis and Philemon Entertain Jupiter— 'I heir Hut becomes a Palace Guardian 1 of the Temple Changed into Trees, ..... . . . . 60

( )

XIV

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VII.

rAGt

Mount JE tna Cupid Wounds Pluto— Pluto carries off Proserpine Search of Ceres She Curses the Earth Jove Releases Proserpine The River Alpheus— The Eleusinian Mysteries Glaucus Becomes a Fish Loves Scylla Wrath of Circe Scylla becomes a Rock, . 64

CHAPTER VIII.

Pygmalion Loves a Statue— Venus gives Life Dryope and Iole The Lotus Tree Venus and Adonis Death of Adonis Anemone, or Wind-Flower Apollo and Hyacinthus Game of Quoits The Hyacinthus Flower, .........

CHAPTER IX.

Ceyx and Halcyone— Palace of King of Sleep Cave of Somnus Flight

of Morpheus Halcyon Birds, ....... 88

CHAPTER X.

Vertumnus and Pomona Hamadryades Iphis, . 95

CHAPTER XI.

^'upid and Psyche Zephyr Jealousy of Psyche Temple of Venus The Ant Hill The Golden Fleece Pluto Charon —Mysterious Box Stygian Sleep Cup of Ambrosia Birth of Pleasure Significance of Name, . . loo

CHAPTER XII.

Cadmus City of Thebes Kills the Serpent Dragon's Teeth Marries Harmonia— Introduces Letters into Greece The Myrmidons Cephalus Aiacus Pestilence Origin of the Myrmidons, . . 113

CHAPTER XIII.

Nisus Scylla betrays Nisus Her Punishment Echo Sentence of Juno Narcissus Loves Himself Turned into a Flower Clyde Pas¬ sion for Apollo— Turned into a Sunflower Hero and Leander Swims the Hellespont Death, . 12

CHAPTER XIV.

Minerva— Mars Arachne— Challenges Minerva Minerva’s Web

Arachne becomes a Spider Niobe— Excites Latona’s Anger Death of the Children Becomes a Stone, . I3I

CHAPTER XV.

The Greece Gorgons Acrisius— Dance— Tower of Brass Jupiter’s Love Perseus Polydectes Medusa Atlas Andromeda The Sea- Monster The Wedding-Feast Enemies turned into Stone Death of Acrisius, ........... 14I

CONTENTS.

xv

CHAPTER XVI.

PAGH

Monsters Laius, King of Thebes (Edipus Slays his Father Sphinx . The Riddle (Edipus King— Jacosta Plague Pegasus Chi- maera Bellerophon Centaurs Pygmies Griffin Arimaspians, . 151

CHAPTER XVII.

\The Golden Fleece Hellespont Search of Jason The Argonauts

Clashing Islands Fiery Bulls Dragon’s Teeth Eson Incanta¬ tions of Medea Hecate Hebe Death of Jason, .

i6x

CHAPTER XVIII.

Meleager Atalanta Wild Boar Atalanta’ s Race Hippomenes

Golden Apples Ingratitude Venus’ Revenge Corybantes, . . 171

CHAPTER XIX.

Hercules Twelve Labors Slave of Omphale Slays Nessus Dejanirus’

Gift Death of Hercules Hebe Ganymede Fortuna Victoria, . 178

CHAPTER XX.

Cecrops Erichthonius— Procne Philomela Theseus Moves the Stone Procrustes’ Bed The Minotaur Ariadne Labyrinth— Becomes King Pirithous Theseutn Festival of Panathenasa Elgin Mar¬ bles Olympic Games Daedalus Icarus Perdix Invents the Saw Castor and Pollux Gemini Dioscuri, . 190

CHAPTER XXI.

Semele— Infancy of Bacchus Triumphal March Acetes Pentheus Worship of Bacchus Ariadne Bacchus Marries Ariadne Her Crown, . 203

CHAPTER XXII.

Pan Syrinx Naiades Oreades Nereides Dryades, or Hamadryades

Paganism Erisichthon Violation of Ceres’ Grove The Punish¬

ment Phoecus The Water-Deities— Trident Amphitrite Nereus and Doris Triton and Proteus Thetis Leucothea and Palaemon - Camenae The Winds . 21 1

CHAPTER XXIII.

Achelous—- Contest with Hercules Cornucopia .-Esculapius Cyclopes Admetus Alcestis Offers her Life Antigone Antigone’s De¬ motion Her Burial Penelope, ....... 224

xvi

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIV.

fcAOt

Orpheus Marriage with Eurydice Her Death Orpheus Descends to Hades Thracian Maidens Aristaeus Complains to his Mother Regains his Bees Mythical Poets and Musicians First Prophet Musseus, . 234

CHAPTER XXV.

Arion Thrown into the Sea His Return Ibycus His Murder Thea¬ tre Scene Cranes of Ibycus The Punishment Simonides Scopas Jest Sappho Lover’s Leap, . 245

CHAPTER XXVI.

Endymion Diana Orion Made Blind Kedalion Sight Restored Pleiades Aurora Memnon Tithonus Stature of Memnon

Scylla Acis Galatea River Acis, . 254

CHAPTER XXVII.

The Trojan War The Contest Decision of Paris Abduction of Helen Ulysses Feigns Madness Priam Agamemnon Kills the Stag Iphigenia The War The Iliad Interest of the Divinities Achilles’ Armor Death of Patroclus Achilles takes the Field Slays Hector Priam visits Achilles His request Granted Funeral Solemnities, ...... ... 262

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Achilles Captivated by Polyxena Slain in the Temple Ulysses claims his Armor Death of Ajax Hyacinthus Arrows of Hercules Death of Paris The Palladium Wooden Horse Sea Serpent Death of Laocoon Fall of Troy Menelaus and Helen Agamem¬ non Orestes Electra, ........ 285

CHAPTER XXIX.

Odyssey Ad ventures of Ulysses The Cyclopes /Eolus Isle The Laes- trygonians Circe Scylla and Charybdis -Oxen of the Sun Ulys¬ ses’ Raft Calypso Telemachus and Mentor’s Escape* . . . 294

CHAPTER XXX.

Ulysses Abandons the Raft Country of the Ph;eacians Dream of Nau- sicaa— Game of Ball Palace of Alcinous— The Gardens Hospi¬ tality to Ulysses Game of Quoits Demodicus Ulysses’ Depar¬ ture Arrives at Ithaca Received by Eumaeus Meets Telemachus Recognized by his Dog Penelope Skill of Archery Slays the Suitors, . 308

CONTENTS.

XVII

CHAPTER XXXI.

1*AG«

Adventures of /Eneas Arrives at Thrace Delos Crete The Harpies Shore of Epirus Cyclopes— Juno’s Anger Neptune’s Inter¬ vention Carthage Abandons Dido Death of Palinurus Direc¬ tions of the Sybil Arrives at Italy . 319

CHAPTER XXXII.

The Infernal Regions Descent into Hades Pluto The Fates Charon Meets Palinurus Cerberus Minos Judge of Children Meets Dido Shades of the Warriors Judgment Hall of Rhadamanthus Elysian Fields Ixion Sisyphus Tantalus Orpheus Meets his Father Plan of Creation Transmigration of Souls Elysium The Sibyl The Nine Books, ....... 327

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Dream of I.atinus Prediction of the Harpies Juno’s Anger Opening the Gates of Janus Camilla Evander Welcome to /Eneas In¬ fant Ro' .e The Rutulians— Turnus Nisus and Euryalus Both are Sla' ; Mezentius Tineas slays Turnus Death of /Eneas Romulus and Remus— Foundation of Rome, ..... 340

CHAPTER XXXIV.

Pythagoras His Teachings Sybaris and Crotona Milo Egyptian Mythology The Rosetta Stone The Ritual of the Dead Hall of Two Truths Osiris and the Judges Disposition of the Dead— The Apis The Tomb of The Egyptian Gods Myth of Osiris and Isis The Oracles Dodona— Delphi Trophonius /Esculapius Apis, 356

CHAPTER XXXV.

Origin of Mythology— The Theories Scriptural, Historical, Allegor¬ ical, Astronomical, Physical, and Philological Statues of the Gods and Goddesses, Olympian Jupiter, Minerva of the Parthenon, Venus de Medici, Venus de Melos, Apollo Belvedere, Diana of the Hind, Hermes of Olympia Poets of Mythology, Homer, Virgil, Ovid, /Eschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, . 375

CHAPTER XXXVI.

Modern Monsters The Phoenix Cockatrice Unicom Salamander, . 386

CHAPTER XXXVII.

Eastern Mythology Zoroaster Zend-Avesta Babylonia Assyria Nineveh Phoenician Deities Hindu Mythology —The Vedas Brahma Vishnu Siva —Laws of Manu The Juggernaut Castes Customs— Buddha Buddhism The Grand Lama Prester John, . 391

xvm

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

TAGS

Northern Mythology -The Eddas The Earth’s Creation The Upper World The Middle World The Under World Odin The Joys of Valhalla Origin of Poetry The Sagas The Valkyrior Thor and the other Gods Loki and his Progeny Fenris, Midgard Ser¬ pent and Hela The Fenris Wolf Bound How Thor paid the Mountain Giant his Wages— The Recovery of the Hammer Freyr and Gerda, ........... 409

CHAPTER XXXIX.

Thor’s visit to Jotunheim Thialfi Skrymir Skrymir falls Asleep City of Utgard Utgard Loki Race between Thialfi and Hugi The Drinking Contest The Gray Cat Thor Wrestles with Old Age Thor and Thialfi leave the City Utgard Loki’s Revelations, . . 426

CHAPTER XL.

Baldur, the Good Frigga— Loki, disguised, goes to I-'ensalir The Mis¬ tletoe The Blind Hodur Death of Baldur— Hermod’s Journey to Ilel Thaukt Funeral of Baldur— Punishment of Loki Siguni

The Elves Ragnarok The General Judgment Restoration of the Golden Age Runic Letters The Skalds Iceland Teutonic My¬ thology The Lorelei The Nibelungen-Lied, .... 433

CHAPTER XLI.

The Druids Be ’al Stonehenge Cromlech Beltane Samh’in The Mistletoe The Snake’s Egg Druidesses The Triads The Bards Eisteddfodds Iona Columba Culdees The Cathedral The

Sepulchre of British Kings Conclusion, . 445

Proverbial Expressions, . . . . . . . . -455

Index to Poets, . 4S7

Index and Dictionary, ...»•••••• 461

FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

I. Apollo Belvedere,

II. Three Fates, The,

III. Juno (Hera),

IV. Apollo Musagetes,

V. Jupiter (Zeus of Otricoli),

VI. Hero and Leander,

VII. Minerva (Pallas Athene),

VIII. Perseus and Andromeda,

IX. Neptune (Poseidon), .

X. Bacchus (Dionysus),

XI. Sea-God, ....

XII. Venus (Aphrodite),

XIII. Mars (Ares),

XIV. Mercury (Hermes),

XV. Laocoon -Group, .

XVI. Minerva (Athene),

XVII. Tineas at the Court of Dido, . XVIII. Furies, The,

XIX. Mercury (Hermes of Praxiteles),

. Rome, . . Frontispiece

Paul Thumann, . Facing 13 Villa Lodovisi, Rome, . 40

Vatican, Rome, . . 86

Vatican, Rome, . . 1 13

F. Kellner, . . .129

After Pheidias, Found ) at Athens, 1880, j ^ Coypel, Louvre, Paris, . 146

Lateran Museum, Rome, 196 Museum, Capitol, Rome, 206 . Vatican, Rome, . . 218

Head of the Statue from 1 2^2

Melos, Paris, . J Glyptothek, Munich, . 270

Bronze Statue, Naples, . 282

Vatican, Rome, . . 289

Parthenon, . . . 308

P. Guerin, . . . 324

E. Bume-Jones, . . 332

Found in Olympia, 1 877. 1

Restored by Schaper, i

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

Achilles and Licomede,

Uffizi Gallery, Florence, .

PAGB

266

Achilles, Thetis bearing the armor of,

. F. Gferard,

277

Actaeon, ......

. British Museum,

47

Adonis, ......

. Thorwaldsen, Munich, .

83

Tisculapius, .....

. Vatican, Rome,

226

Ajax, ......

. Vatican, Rome,

286

Ajax bearing the body of I’atroclus, .

. Capitol, Rome,

275

Amazon, . . . . .

. Vatican, Rome,

180

Amazons, Battle of, .

. Vatican, Rome,

195

Amun, .......

366

Anon, or Dagon, ....

. From a Relief at Nimroud,

398

( *** )

XX

illustrations.

Apis Bull.

Apollo,

Apollo and Daphne, .

Apollo and the Muses,

Apollo and the Muses,

Arethusa, .

Ariadne, .

Ariadne, .

Astarte, .

Atalanta’s Race,

Athene, . Group from Altar-frieze of

Atlas,

Aurora, .

Aurora,

Bacchus and Silenus,

Bacchus and Panther,

Brahma with Sarasiwati,

Buddha, .

Cacus and Hercules, .

Calliope, .

Centaur, .

Ceres,

Charon and Psyche, .

Circe and the friends of Ulysses Clio,

Cronus and Rhea,

Cumiean Sibyl, .

Cupid (Eros), .

Cupid and Psyche,

Cupid, Psyche at the Couch of,

Cupid and Psyche on Mount Olympu Daedalus and Icarus, .

Days of the Week, Monday,

Days of the Week, Tuesday,

Days of the Week, Wednesday Days of the Week, Thursday,

Days of the Week, Friday,

Days of the Week, Saturday,

Days of the Week, Sunday,

Diana,

Diana,

Diana of Ephesus, .

Diana of Versailles, .

Echo,

Electra and Orestes, .

Erato,

Euterpe, .

Louvre, Paris,

VAGI

364

Vatican, Rome,

86

Rome, .

32

G. Romano, Florence, .

171

Raphael Mengs,

9

Ch. Crank,

.

72

II. Rae,

193

Vatican, Rome,

.

209

m a Bronze found in

Syria,

397

Poynter,

175

ergamon. Restored by Tondeur, . Naples,

. Reni,

. Reni,

. Vatican, Rome,

. Athens,

Florence,

Vatican, Rome,

A. Zick,

B. Riviere,

Naples,

Angelo ( Sistine Chapel, Rome), 339

Capitol, Rome,

. 101

Capitol, Rome,

. 103

P. Thumann, .

. 105

P. Thumann, .

. IIO

J. M. Vim, .

. 19s

Raphael,

. 19

Raphael,

. 51

Raphael,

79

Raphael,

95

Raphael,

”3

Raphael,

151

Raphael,

. 161

Corregio,

352

Vatican, Rome,

353

. 256

Louvre, Paris,

. 46

Guy Head,

123

Villa Ludovisi, Rome,

. 292

I

145

V

35

6i

203

403

405

182

10

159

214

329

3°i

II 6

15

15

ILLUSTRATIONS.

~Ar,»

Famese Bull, . Naples, ... . . 242

Fenris, the Woh, ..... ..... 421

Fingal’s Cave, . 449

Flora, . Naples, . . . .221

Fortuna, ....... Vatican, Rome, . .188

Freya, . 424

Freyr, . 419

Frigga, . 434

Ganymedes, . Vatican, Rome, . . 187

Gods weighing Actions, .... British Museum, . . 362

Hebe, . 186

Hecate, ....... Capitol, Rome, . . 327

Hector, ....... Venice, .... 279

Hector and Andromache, Parting of, . . A. Maignan, . . . 267

Helen, Paris and, . . . . J. L. Davis (Louvre, Paris), 264

Helen, Rape of, . Mantua, . . . 262

Helois, or Sol, ...... Relief, from Troy, . . 305

Hercules, The Infant, .... Louvre, Paris, . .179

Hercules and Cacus, ..... Florence, . . . 182

Hercules at feet of Omphale, . . C. G. Glyre (Louvre, Paris), 183

Hercules, Farnese, . Naples, .... 185

Hero and Leander, . . . . . F. Kellner, . . .129

Homer, A reading from, .... Alma-Tadema, . . 294

Indra . 401

Irene, with young Pluto, .... Munich, . . . 354

Iris, . 91

Isis . 369

Janus, . 342

Jason, . . Glyptothek, Rome, . . 163

Jason, . Museum, Rome, . .164

Tuno, or Hera, ...... Vatican, Rome, , . 8

Jupiter, Verospi, . Vatican, Rome, . . 2

Jupiter, Group from Altar-frieze of Pergamon, . 375

Leander, Hero and, . F. Kellner, . . . 129

Lorelei, . W. Kray, . . . 442

Mars, . Villa Ludovisi, Rome, . 133

Mars, . Louvre, Paris, . .271

Medea, . N. Sichel, . . . 168

Medusa, Head of, .... . Wagrez, . . . 14!

Meleager, . Vatican, Rome, . . 172

Melpomene, . Vatican, Rome, . .13

Mercury Belvedere, . Vatican, Rome, . . 10

Mercury, ...... National Museum, Florence, 283

Minerva, . Capitol, Rome, . . 132

Mithras, ....... Vatican, Rome, . . 392

Narcissus, . Naples, . . . .125

xxii ILL USTRA TIONS.

Neptune and Amphitrite, .

. Munich,

FAGB

217

Nereid,

. Naples,

57

Nile God, .

. Vatican, Rome,

361

Nin, Assyrian Winged Bull and Genius

>> .

396

Niobe, ......

. Florence,

137

Odin, ......

411

CEdipus and Antigone,

. E. Tachendorff,

229

(Edipus and the Sphinx, .

. Louvre, Paris,

153

Orestes and Electra, ....

. Villa Ludovisi, Rome,

292

Orpheus and Eurydice,

. R. Beyschlag,

234

Orpheus, Eurydice and Mercury,

. Naples,

237

Osiris, ......

367

Osiris, ......

368

Pan, ......

.

211

Pan and Apollo, .

. Naples, ....

212

Pandora, ......

. N. Sichel, .

22

Paris and Helen, . . . .

J. L. Davis (Louvre, Paris),

264

Patroclus, ......

. Athens,

273

Patroclus, Ajax bearing the body of,

Capitol, Rome,

275

Pegasus and the Nymphs, .

. Thorwaldsen,

156

Penelope, ......

. Vatican, Rome,

233

Perseus, ......

Canova (Vatican, Rome),

143

Pleiades, ......

. E. Vedder,

257

Pluto and Proserpine,

Villa Ludovisi, Rome,

66

Polyhymnia, .....

16

Pomona, ......

Naples Museum, .

96

Prometheus Bound, ....

. Flaxman,

27

Proserpine, .

69

Proserpine, Abduction of, .

. P. Shobert, .

70

Psyche and Cupid, ....

. Capitol, Rome,

103

Psyche at Couch of Cupid,

. P. Thumann,

105

Psyche with Urn, ....

R. Beyschlag,

108

Psyche and Cupid on Mount Olympus,

P. Thumann, .

no

Psyche and Charon, ....

. A. Zick,

329

Rosetta Stone, .

360

Sappho and Alcaeus, ....

H. Biirck,

253

Silenus and Bacchus,

. Vatican, Rome,

61

Sirens, ......

. E. Barrios, .

302

Siva, .

400

Sol, or Helois, .....

. Relief, from Troy, .

305

Sphinx, CEdipus and the, .

Louvre, Paris,

153

Stonehenge, .

446

Terpsichore, .....

. Florence,

14

Thalia, ......

. Vatican, Rome,

17

Theseus, .....

Temple of Volksgartens, Vienna,

191

Thetis, bearing the Armor of Achilles,

. F. Gerard,

277

Thor, ......

418

Three Graces, .

. Vatican, Rome,

12

ILLUSTRATIONS. xxiii

PAG It

Triinurti, ....

39»

Urania, ....

. . . Berlin, .

14

Ulysses Feigning Madness,

. H. Hardy, .

265

Valkyrie bearing a hero to Valhalla, . . K. Dielitz,

409

Valkyrior,

. P. N. Arbo, .

416

Venus, Crouching,

. . . Vatican, Rome,

67

Venus, ....

. . . Capitol, Rome,

84

Venus, Love, and Vulcan, .

. Tintoretto,

245

Venus de Milo,

. . . Louvre, Paris,

379

Vesta, or Hestia,

. . . Rome, ....

354

Victory, or Nike,

. Samothrace ( Restored by Zumbusch),

189

Virgil, Tomb of,

. . . .....

382

Vishnu, ....

399

Vulcan, Forge of,

. . . Tintoretto, Venice,

5

Winds, The, Apeliotes, Eurus,

Lips, Zephyrus, .....

222

Wolf Fenris,

421

FROM